Konstal 102Na #2069
Trams of the 102Na type were produced in Chorzowska Wytwórnia Konstrukcji Stalowych (Konstal Chorzów). This plant was the main producer of tramcars in Poland after World War II, but it was not the only type of production. Trams were produced there from 1948, the first type being the Konstal N cars, but in the first year, due to the lack of traction engines, only trailer (passive) cars were made. All post-war trams operating in Wrocław (types N, 4N, 102N, 102Na, 102Nd, 105N, 105Na) come from this plant; vehicles from other manufacturers appeared only at the turn of the 21st century.
The 102Na trams were produced in 1970–1973. They are a modified version of the 102N type trams. These two types differ in particular in the shape of the front and rear parts – the angular form used in the 102N cars was abandoned, returning to the rounded shape typical for the earlier 13N carriages. Thanks to trat the 102Na tram received a very modern – for those times – streamlined silhouette. In addition to the basic version of the 102Na, several other variants were also produced, including in 1973 the energy-saving version 102Nd, which was created especially for Wrocław and was distinguished by the possibility of switching motors from series to series-parallel operation and the inability to operate in multiple traction. Moreover, the 102Nd carriages differed in minor structural details, the most visible was the use of three-part – instead of four-part – doors (third and fourth pair).
The first two 102N trams were delivered to Wrocław in 1969. These were the first articulated trams in the history of the city. Their deliveries started a new era of public transport, characterised by better safety, higher speed and capacity of the rolling stock. The first 12 cars of the 102Na type appeared on the streets of the city in 1970. Until 1973, a total of 104 articulated cars of the 102-generation (two 102N cars, 80 102Na and 22 102Nd) were delivered. The vehicles delivered on the basis of the central assignment were painted red (sides), cream (window part, articulation, parts covering the chassis) and brown (protective bar on the sides). However, some of the trams were bought by Wrocław workplaces (including Pafawag, Elwro, Archimedes) and, to distinguish them, they were painted blue (sides), cream (window part, parts covering the chassis) and black (protective bar). This initiated the restoration of the traditional colours of Wrocław trams from the period 1948–1953 (since 1953 they were white and red).
Konstal 102Na trams were operated in most cities in Poland with tram communication (in Łódź the narrow-gauge version 102NaW was used). Today they have been withdrawn from regular use everywhere. Their place was initially taken by Konstal 105N and 105Na cars (delivered to Wrocław from 1975 to the beginning of the 1990s). Wrocław was the penultimate city regularly operating trams of the 102Na type. The last scheduled ride of this type of tram took place on May 17, 2009 on line no. 20, but until 2010 they were still used as reserve carriages.
The Konstal 102Na #2069 wagon was manufactured in June 1972 with the serial number 364. It was operated all the time by the Miejskie Przedsiębiorstwo Komunikacyjne (MPK, Municipal Transport Company) in Wrocław, mainly at the “Borek” depot at Powstańców Śląskich street. It was withdrawn from regular exploitation in December 2009. Later it was taken over by the Klub Sympatyków Kolei (KSK, Railway Sympathisers Club), from which it was acquired by the Klub Sympatyków Transportu Miejskiego (KSTM, Urban Transport Enthusiasts Club) in 2013 (until 2014 on the basis of lending, later it became its property).
It is a motor, articulated, two-unit, one-way, six-axle, standard-gauge (1435 mm) tram, adapted for single traction (some wagons could also be operated in two-car trains, which were found in Wrocław on line 17; however, car #2069 was never adapted to this).
The structure was inspired by the Czechoslovakian T1 tram. The chassis of the tram consists of three two-axle steering bogies. Two of them (first and third) are driving, the middle – passive. The vehicle is powered by four 41.5 kW engines placed in pairs on the first and third bogies. The wheelbase of all bogies is 1,900 mm. Originally, the chassis was covered with shields made from steel plate, which, however, were partially removed during later operation, facilitating the maintenance of the bogies. One coupler with Albert type head is suspended under each of the platforms (front and rear).
The maximum acceleration of the unloaded train is 1 m/s², and the maximum speed is about 55 km/h, hence these trams were referred to as high-speed. The tram is powered with 600V current taken from the overhead cable using the OTK-1 collector (pantograph). The control is carried out using a manual adjuster. In the first part of the tram, the converter (a device that converts high voltage from the overhead cable into low, on-board voltage) is used in its full functional range, in the second part it serves only as a fan for the resistor box. The tram has three types of brakes: electro-dynamic (main), electromagnetic (slipper, used in an emergency) and rim brakes (used during a halt). The middle rolling carriage is additionally equipped with a disc brake, activated by a solenoid. Originally, the tram was equipped with two sand-sprayers, located over the first axle of the front bogie, operated by a lever by the driver. During later modernisations, the sand-sprayers were removed, and an additional button on the control panel was installed to help bring the tram out of skid, which activated the emergency, electromagnetic brakes.
The wagon painting was originally blue and – above the lower window line – cream; the roof was grey. Currently, this painting pattern has been restored. Windows in frames with rounded corners, all are divided into three parts, of which the top two are sliding. In both sections of the tram there are two pairs of double-part doors, electrically opened from the driver’s station (except for the driver’s door). Exterior lighting consists of one headlamp in the centre of the wagon’s head, a pair of rear lights and flashing turn signals.
Inside, there are 32 seats, and the number of standing places is 153, hence the trams were described as large-capacity carriages. The frame of passenger seats is made of steel, while the soft parts are covered with artificial leather. All internal walls are lined with fibreboards (wet bent on the ceiling), strengthened with aluminium strips. Along the entire wagon there are two aluminium handrails attached to the ceiling, supplemented with additional vertical handrails by the doors (at the second and third on both sides, at the first and fourth – only on one side). The floor is lined with rubber. Interior lighting is connected in series. The interior of the wagon was originally (and now it is restored) in a pastel colours (cream-colored ceiling and articulation lining; aquamarine internal walls and driver’s position). The driver’s position was originally separated from the passenger compartment only by a partition, created from aluminium handrails and fibreboard.
The Konstal 102Na #2069 wagon is an important element of the transformations in urban transport, which took place in the 3rd quarter of the 20th century. The solutions it contains reflect the technical changes taking place in the 1960s and 1970s, improving tram communication and making it more reliable and passenger-friendly. It was a response to the increasing car traffic in cities and the congestion in trams.
Below we present the latest history of the Konstal 102Na tram from the moment it was withdrawn from regular use till the end of its renovation. Most of the restoration work was financed by the Municipality of Wrocław.
- 2009 The #2069 tram is withdrawn from regular operation.
- 2010 The tram was sold to the Klub Sympatyków Kolei (KSK, Railway Sympathisers Club) in Wrocław.
- 22.04.2013 An agreement was signed for lending the car to the Klub Sympatyków Transportu Miejskiego (KSTM, Urban Transport Enthusiasts Club).
- 15.05.2013 The tram was officially purchased by KSTM and since then it has been our property.
- 02.06.2014 Konstal 102Na tram was officially entered in the register of monuments.
- 07.07.2014 A permit for renovation works was issued for the tram, which allowed the Club to submit an offer in a competition for non-governmental organisations announced by the Wrocław City Hall.
- 07.2014 In the competition we obtained a PLN 130,000 subsidy for the renovation of the tram.
- 1.08.2014 – 6.10.2014 Implementation of the first stage of the tram renovation. Three bogies, converter, engine fan were overhauled and the electrical system was inspected.
- 16.03.2015 – 20.10.2015 The second stage of the renovation of the #2069 tram. The wagon was dismantled, its structure was cleaned (sandblasted) and protected against corrosion. This stage was supported by the Wrocław City Hall in the amount of PLN 170,000.
- 9.07.2015 – 26.11.2015 Another grant from the same source in the amount of PLN 100,000 allowed for the third stage of the restoration, which included painting the sides of the tram, including restoring the original colours, as well as repair (regeneration) of most electrical components, including the pantograph. This is the last stage of renovation performed by Protram Wrocław. After its bankruptcy, the wagon was transported to Kraków to continue the works.
- 11.04.2016 – 20.10.2016 The fourth stage of the renovation, which included the reconstruction of the electrical installation in the car. The work was supported with the amount of PLN 150,000. This stage, unlike the previous ones, was performed by the Miejskie Przedsiębiorstwo Komunikacyjne (MPK, Municipal Transport Company) in Kraków.
- 28.07.2016 – 31.12.2016 The fifth stage of the renovation consisted of inserting restored windows, installing all doors with accessories and starting the completion of the interior. This stage received funding in the amount of PLN 100,000.
- 24.03.2017 – 31.12.2017 The sixth stage of restoration works on this tram, which mainly included the continuation of activities related to the electrics (resulting from the inspection of components carried out by the new contractor) and the reconstruction of the tram’s interior. The stage was co- financed with the amount of PLN 250,000.
- 12.07.2017 – 31.12.2017 The seventh stage consisted in completing the electrical installation and was subsidised with the amount of PLN 78,000.
- 20.02.2018 – 30.06.2018 The eighth stage of works – thanks to a grant of PLN 120,000 – allowed for the finalisation of the restoration of the historic Konstal 102Na tram, aimed at restoring the car to its original, factory state.
|Total number of passengers||186|
|Number of seats||32|
|Netto weight||25900 kg|
|Total weight||34000 kg|
|Engine power||4 x 41,5 kW|